Глубина резкости в фотографии (ГРИП)

Глубина резкости в фотографии (ГРИП) — глубина резко изображаемого пространстваГРИП — это глубина резко изображаемого пространства (далее — глубина резкости). ГРИП является одним из важнейших инструментов в фотографии, позволяющим объективу отображать резкими предметы, которые находятся от него на разном расстоянии.

При помощи глубины резкости фотограф имеет возможность управлять вниманием зрителей, придавая изображению не только реализм, но и высокую художественную ценность. Именно это помогает выделить главный объект фотографии и скрыть второстепенные.

Малую глубину резкости используют при макросъемке и портретной съемке. При съемке пейзажей и ведении репортажа, наоборот, требуется большая глубина резкости, чтобы все предметы в кадре были максимально четкими.

Факторы, которые влияют на глубину резкости

  • значение диафрагмы;
  • фокусное расстояние;
  • дистанция фокусировки;
  • разрешение.

Фокусное расстояние

Глубина резкости в фотографии зависит и от фокусного расстояния объектива. Чем фокусное расстояние объектива будет больше, тем меньше глубина резкости. А если фокусное расстояние будет уменьшаться, ГРИП будет выше. Это объясняется тем, что длиннофокусный объектив увеличивает изображение, включая кружки нерезкости.

Для тех, кому трудно представить, что такое фокусное расстояние, нажмите на своем аппарате кнопку zoom или передвиньте рычажок на объективе — изменяйте передвижение объектива. Приближая объекты в кадре, вы увеличиваете фокусное расстояние, а удаляя их, уменьшаете.

Угол зрения объектива

Чтобы понять, что такое угол зрения объектива, из листа бумаги скрутите небольшую трубочку, сантиметра три в диаметре. Посмотрите через нее на окружающий вас мир.

Теперь обрежьте половину бумажной трубки и опять взгляните туда же и с того же места. Заметили разницу? Через короткую трубочку просматривается больше объектов. В данной ситуации длина трубки является имитацией фокусного расстояния объектива.

По такому же принципу работает и zoom, меняя угол зрения объектива. На языке профессиональных фотографов, широкоугольный объектив и есть аналог короткой трубки. А у длиннофокусного (телеобъектива) угол зрения всегда меньше.

Кружок нерезкости

Кружок нерезкости не имеет четких границПоскольку не бывает четко заданной границы, чтобы можно было определить предельное размытие точки, используют более точный термин «кружок нерезкости».

Когда кружок нерезкости может быть различим глазом? Допустимой нормой четкого кружка нерезкости считается такой, который будет незаметен при увеличении размеров для печати на стандартном листе 20х25 см, когда смотришь на него со стандартного расстояния около 30 см.

При таких условиях производителями камер установлено, что кружок нерезкости будет неразличимым, если его диаметр (после увеличения) будет не более 0,025 мм. Этот стандарт они используют при маркировке глубины резкости (на примере f/22 для объектива 50мм). На самом деле человек с идеальным зрением способен различить третью часть этого размера. Поэтому, чтобы создать приемлемую четкость, кружок нерезкости должен быть еще меньше.

Для разных комбинаций печатного размера и расстояния кружки нерезкости будут различными.

Диафрагма фотоаппаратаЧто такое диафрагма фотоаппарата и как она влияет на качество ваших снимков.

Как правильно настроить выдержку в фотоаппарате читайте в следующей статье.

Светочувствительность ISO матрицы — это один из основополагающих параметров фотоаппарата, подробнее.

Диафрагма

Диафрагма является самым важным фактором, который можно менять в широком диапазоне значений. Чем она больше открыта (меньше число f), тем будет меньше глубина резкости, или наоборот.

Максимальное значение диафрагмы зависит от объектива фотоаппарата. Благодаря фиксам можно открывать диафрагму до таких значений: 2,0; 1,4 и 1,2. При таких параметрах попасть в резкость не так просто.

Конечно, не желательно использовать крайние значения диафрагмы, поскольку большая часть объективов характеризуется наилучшими показателями в диапазоне F:8 — F:16. Когда вы будете снимать на диафрагме F:1.4, вы получите минимальную глубину резкости.

Таблица для расчета глубины резкости

Таблица для расчета глубины резкости

Управление глубиной резкости

Расчет глубины резкости фотографии непосредственно зависит от значения диафрагмы. Не менее важную роль играют фокусное расстояние объектива и дистанция до объекта съемки.

Управление глубиной резкости является одним из важнейших средств при построении композиции кадра. Зрительское внимание привлекается главным образом к резким деталям, и это существенно влияет на впечатление от фотографии в целом.

Например, небольшая глубина резкости позволит отделить объект от общего фона и убрать отвлекающие факторы из кадра. А если все детали снимка сделать резкими, то лучше будет передана не только атмосфера окружения объекта, но и пространственные взаимодействия предметов.

Малая диафрагма, за счет уменьшения величины круга нерезкости по всему кадру, позволит увеличить область четкого воспроизведения деталей. Открытая диафрагма, наоборот, будет создавать крупный круг нерезкости, и четкость деталей начинает зависеть от фокусировки.

Итак, чтобы стать хорошим фотографом и делать отличные снимки, вам следует научиться подбирать нужные сочетания диафрагмы, расстояния до объекта и фокусного расстояния. На многих объективах имеется шкала глубины резкости, которая позволит подобрать необходимое сочетание параметров.

Пробуйте, экспериментируйте. Со временем ваш собственный опыт будет помогать вам выбирать необходимое значение диафрагмы, и вы будете знать, куда нужно фокусировать объектив, чтобы получать идеальную глубину резкости.

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